R1b is a part of the broader Haplogroup K-M9 and its linear descendants K2, K2b and P, which is also known as K2b2. (2014) suggest that "an initial rapid diversification ... likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q." The only living males reported to carry the basal paragroup K2* are indigenous Australians.Names such as R1b, R1b1 and so on are phylogenetic (i.e.
While age estimates in these articles are all more recent than the Last Glacial Maximum, all mention the Neolithic (when farming was introduced to Europe from the Middle East), as a possible candidate period. Analysis of ancient Y DNA from the remains of populations derived from early Neolithic Central and North European Linear Pottery culture settlements have not yet found males belonging to haplogroup R1b.The women then raised the children that resulted to speak their own language and with their cultural practices, rather than those of the fathers'.This possible explanation further addresses the point that while other high-R1b regions in Western Europe (such as the British Isles and southern Germany) show disproportionately high incidences of Mt DNA haplogroups that correspond to a Pontic Steppes origin (specifically Mt DNA Haplogroups I, U2, U3, U4, and W), the Basque region does not.Early research into the origins of R1b focused on Europe.In 2000, Ornella Semino and colleagues argued that R1b had been in Europe before the end of the Ice Age, and had spread north from an Iberian refuge after the Last Glacial Maximum.R1b is a subclade within the "macro-haplogroup" Haplogroup K (K-M9), which is one of the predominant groupings of all the rest of human male lines outside of Africa. (2014) "rapid diversification process of K-M526 likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q." Three autosomal genetic studies in 2015 gave support to the Kurgan hypothesis of Gimbutas regarding the proto-Indo-European homeland.
K* is believed to have originated in Asia (as is the case with an even earlier ancestral haplogroup, F (F-M89). According to those studies, haplogroups R1b and R1a, now the most common in Europe (R1a is also common in South Asia) would have expanded from the Russian steppes, along with the Indo European languages; they also detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic Europeans, which would have been introduced with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as Indo European Languages.
However, as Barbara Arredi and colleagues were the first to point out, the distribution of R1b microsatellite variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming.
The proposal of a southeastern origin of R1b were supported by three detailed studies based on large datasets published in 2010.
It has been found in Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Western China.
Western Europe is dominated by the downstream subclades of R1b1a – especially R1b1a1a2 (R-M269; known previously as R1b1a2).
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. The clade is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia.